White crystalline powder,slightly soluble in water
98%min by HPLC
Guanidinoacetic acid (GAA; also known as Glycocyamine or guanidinoacetate or 2-guanidinoacetic acid) is a nutritional feed additive classified as “amino acid,their salts and analogue” by the Commission of the European Communities in 2009,futher by Chinese Ministry of Agriculture in 2014y and FDA in 2016y.
It is the only endogenous precursor to synthesize creatine in the body.
Creatine plays an essential role in the energy metabolism since its first identified as a natural compound in humans ~80 years ago, particularly in muscle cells , and approved can increase lean meat ratio, accelerate growth of animals and improve feed conversion.
Guanidinoacetic acid is highly recommended to use together with methionine and betaine at a suitable ratio
Guanidinoacetic acid (Glycocyamine) is transported into the liver through blood circulation and reacts with S-adenosyl-1-methionine under the catalytic action of GAMT (Guanidine-acetate-methyl-transferase) to produce creatine, which spreads through blood circulation and is transported into cells through cell membranes.
Creatine, in the form of high energy phosphocreatine, constitutes the basic energy reserve for muscles apart from ATP (Adenosine triphosphate). When the muscle rests, ATP can transfer phosphate groups to creatine and thus phosphoc reatine isformed; when the muscle works, phosphocreatine quickly transports a phosphate group to ADP (Adenosine diphosphate) and thus ATP is regenerated; the hydrolγsis of ATP can release substantial amounts of energy,which is the most direct energy source in organisms. Therefore GAA can promote energy reservation and metabolism of organisms.
The diagram below illustrates the action mechanism of Guanidinoacetic acid:
Guanidinoacetic acid (Glycocyamine) consumes methyl when producing creatine, but methyl cannot be synthesized in the bodies of animals，it needs to be supplied from feed. The main source of methyl needed here is methionine. Absence of supplementary methionine will inhibit synthesis of creatine and affect balance of amino acid.
Methionine turns into homocysteine after providing methyl,while betaine promotes methylation of homocysteine, which leads to reproduction of methionine. Betaine also accelerates methyl circulation and metabolism, as well as promotes fat metabolism.
Therefore, compounding Guanidinoacetic acid (Glycocyamine) with methionine and betaine is necessary and efficient, as it not only guarantees smooth conversion from Guanidinoacetic acid (Glycocyamine) into creatine but also reduces accumulation of homocysteine.
The diagram below illustrates the action mechanism of Guanidinoacetic acid compound:
- Improve Production performance
GAA improves energy reserve in organisms; promotes growth; increases daily weight gain by 10%; reduces feed conversion ratio by 10%to 20%.
Ringel (2007) proved daily gain of broiler taking GAA added feeds was significantly increased as compared with control group which took complete vegetal diet. (Proceedings 16th European Symposium on Poultry Nutrition [CJ. Strasbourg France, 2007, 26-30)
- Improve Carcass performance
GAA causes more energy to be distributed to muscles; promotes growth and development of muscles; increases lean meat percentage by 8%,carcass yield by over 2%.
Young and other researchers (2007) have proved that adding creatine in pig feed can improve the anabolism of protein as well as improve lean meat and carcass yield. (Meat Science, 2007, 76: 342-351)
- Improve meat quality
GAA adjusts glycolysis after slaughter; reduces lactic acid and drip loss; increases muscle hydraulic; increases brightness and tenderness of muscles.
Lemme(2007) proved GAA could significantly increase carcass weight, enhance energy metabolism of muscle, improve brightness and yellowness of breast after slaughtering.
- Improve reproduction performance
GAA enhances reproduction ability of animals; increases fertility rate and embryo survival rate.
Murakami and other researchers proved adding GAA into basal feed (corn & bean pulp) significantly increased egg production rate and hatch rate，reduced embryonic death rate,promoted daily weight gain and feed conversion rate of offspring.
No major side effects have been reported as of 2015 in the medical literature regarding supplementation with this nutrient.
|Starter pigs||Finisher pigs||Broilers/ducks||Poultry breeders|